Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union

Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union

Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs) within the Russian SFSR



  • Tatar ASSR — Formed on 27th of May 1920 on the territory of the western two thirds of the Kazan Governorate populated by Tatars. On 30th of October 1990, declared sovereignty as the Republic of Tatarstanand on 18th of October 1991 – independence. The Russian constitutional court overturned the declaration on 13th of March 1992. On February 1994 a separate agreement was reached with Moscow on the status of Tatarstan as an associate state in Russia with confederate status.





  • Crimean ASSR Formed on 18th of October 1921, on the territory of Crimean peninsula, following the Red Army‘s eviction of Baron Wrangel‘s army, ending the Russian Civil War in Europe. On 18th of May, 1944 disbanded following the deportation of the Crimean Tatars, and transformed into the Crimean Oblast. On 19th of February 1954, transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Re-established on 12th of February 1991, and on 4th of September of that year declared sovereignty. On 5th of May 1992 — declared independence as the Republic of Crimea, on 13th of May the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine overturned the declaration, but compromised on an Autonomous Republic of Crimea, which exists to this day.




  • Karelian ASSR — Formed on 23rd of July 1923 when the Karelian Labour Commune was integrated into the RSFSR administrative structure. On 31st of March 1940, elevated into a full Union republic as theKarelo-Finnish SSR. On 16th of July 1956, downgraded back into an ASSR, and re-subordinated to RSFSR. Declared sovereignty on 13th of October 1991, as the Republic of Karelia.



  • Kazak ASSR Formed on 19th of April 1925, when the first Kirgiz ASSR was renamed and partitioned. Upon the ratification of the new Soviet constitution, the ASSR was elevated into a full Union Republic on 3rd of December 1936. On 25th of October 1990 declares sovereignty and on 16th of December 1991 — independence as the Republic of Kazakhstan.



  • Kirghiz ASSR Formed on 1st of February 1926, upon elevation of the Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast. Upon the ratification of the new Soviet constitution, the ASSR was elevated into a full Union Republic on 3rd of December 1936. On 12th of December 1990 declares sovereignty as the Republic of Kyrgyztan and on 31st of August 1991 independence.








  • Chechen-Ingush ASSR — Formed on 5th of December 1936, when the North Caucausus Kray was disestablished and its constituent Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR and subordinated to Mosocow. Following the en masse deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, on 7th of March 1944, the ChIASSR was disbanded, and the Grozny Okrug was temporarily administered byStavropol Kray until the 22nd of March, when the territory was portioned between North Ossetian and Dagestan ASSRs, and the Georgian SSR. The remaining land was merged with Stavropol Krays Kizlyar district and organised as Grozny Oblast, which existed until 9th of January 1957, when the ChIASSR was re-established, though only the southern border’s original shape was retained. Declared sovereignty on 27th of November 1990 as the Chechen-Ingush Republic. On 8th of June 1991, the 2nd Chechen National Congress proclaimed a separate Chechen-Republic (Noxchi-Cho), and on 6th of September, began a coup which overthrew the Soviet local government. De facto, all authority passed to the self-proclaimed government which was renamed as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria in early 1993. In response, the western Ingush districts after a referendum on 28th of November 1991, were organised into an Ingush Republic which was officially established on 4th of June 1992, by decree of Russian President as theRepublic of Ingushetia. The same decree de jure created a Chechen republic, although it would be established only on 3rd of June 1994 and carry out partial governance during the First Chechen War. TheKhasavyurt Accord would again suspend the government on 15th of November 1996. The present Chechen Republic government was re-established on 15th of October 1999.



  • Mari ASSR — Formed on 5th of December 1936 upon the elevation of the Mari Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared Sovereignty on 22nd of December 1990 as the Mari Soviet Socialist Republic (Mari El). From 8th of July 1992 — the Republic of Mari El.


  • Tuva ASSR — Formed on 10th of October 1961 when the Tuva Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR. On 12th of December 1990 declared sovereignty as the Soviet Republic of Tyva. From 20th of November 1993 — Republic of Tyva.



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *